Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

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Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by spring_phan on Wed May 06, 2009 7:35 pm

Would you like to read this article again Question

At a time when human and animal sacrifices to the ancient gods were common, some creative person probably suggested that scented wood or leaves be burnt to mask the sickly smell of burning flesh. The word ‘perfume’, in fact, comes from the Latin per fumus, meaning ‘from smoke’. It must have been a welcome relief for the audience at such events not to have to put up with the dreadful odours but little comfort for those being sacrificed. And so it was, in those ancient times, that perfume became part of the culture, and the beginnings of a new industry sprang to life.

In ancient Egypt, the use of scented ointments and cosmetics by wealthy members of society became popular. And to freshen up in the afterlife, the Pharaohs had vases of perfumed oils placed in their tombs. Centuries later, during the Middle Ages, Crusaders returning to Europe took back gifts of perfume for their loved ones and since those times the use of perfume has grown to such an extent that the industry is now worth a massive 30 billion dollars a year.

The creation of a top-class perfume is the result of a combination of clever chemistry and the art of the perfumer (perfume maker). With some 2,000 possible ingredients to draw upon, the blending process is a highly skilled and challenging task. In modern times both natural products and synthetic chemicals are used to blend the desired fragrances.

Fragrant, or essential, oils extracted from leaves, barks, resins and flowers form the bases for most perfumes. One method of extraction, which has been used since the 8th century, is distillation, in which separation and purification of the oils take place through a boiling-off process. Another common method known as cold pressing involves crushing and pressing the plant matter to release the oils. Oils can also be extracted with the use of chemical dissolving agents, or solvents.

A vast amount of plant material may be needed to produce relatively small quantities of essential oils, for example, it takes about 5 million jasmine flowers to produce 1 kg of jasmine concentrate – which has a value of about $55,000. And to make 1 kg of French rose concentrate, worth more than $7,000, about 800 kg of flowers are needed.

Until quite recently, certain animal products were considered essential ingredients in many perfumes. A key component in high-quality perfumes was a substance called ambergris. This is produced in the intestines of sperm whales and was supplied to the perfume industry by whalers. Though still available, the worldwide decline in whaling has made ambergris a very expensive ingredient.

Another animal product used in the making of perfume is musk. This oily secretion from glands on the abdomen of the musk deer has been considered a vital ingredient in perfume for centuries. Not only does it have its own distinctive scent but it has the effect of slowing down the loss of other fragrances in a perfume.

Then, of course, there is civet, the buttery substance milked from the anal glands of the civet cat, which – though not used as much as in the past – is still used in some of the more expensive fragrances. It would be interesting to know if the women who wear high-priced perfume know exactly what they dab on their skin. Fortunately, most animal products are no longer essential to the perfume industry as they can now be replaced with man-made alternatives.

The development of a new perfume is an expensive and involved process but, if successful, it has the potential to earn many millions of dollars. The size of the perfume industry demonstrates just how willing people are to spend big money on this luxury item. Perfume may have been used in ancient times to disguise the unpleasant odours of burning flesh but these days, thankfully, wearing perfume is more about creating a sense of style and feeling good.

Suspect

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by [kei] on Wed May 06, 2009 7:58 pm

Such an article given by "female teacher" Wink

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by Admin on Wed May 06, 2009 8:19 pm

Exactly, a good sense of teaching style.Please show your sense of style, teacher. Embarassed

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by spring_phan on Mon May 11, 2009 7:40 am

@ To [kei]: When I read your reply, I smiled and have been trying to guess what you meant but it seems that I have no answers. Are there any major differences between female teaching styles and male teaching styles? Rolling Eyes


@ To admin: I am very happy to have you as one of my loyal fans I love you . Well, at first I intended to give a normal/traditional test but later then I thought most of you and I felt bored of that boring style so I presumed to replace by an 'interesting' one. I was so sorry for informing all of you quite late Sad However, two days ago when I knew our whole class (Group 1 and 2) will study the same learning program IC3 next semester, I realized such tests might be good for you, group 2 Neutral

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by [kei] on Tue May 12, 2009 2:53 am

^^
@ To [kei]: When I read your reply, I smiled and have been trying to guess what you meant but it seems that I have no answers. Are there any major differences between female teaching styles and male teaching styles? Rolling Eyes
i am to say sorry for my thought about your style of teaching - it's just the way showing my interest in your topic ^^ - BC there is no major differences between female teaching styles and male teaching styles. Smile

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by spring_phan on Tue May 12, 2009 8:10 am

@ To Kei: You don't need to say sorry because I am not a very serious person, you know tongue . I posed the question for the purpose of getting your ideas about the impacts of genders on teaching styles. Personally, I think there are certain differences between female and male teaching styles. When I have free time, I will post a reading selection about that issue. Don't worry about that Kei Smile

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

Post by [kei] on Sat May 16, 2009 12:06 pm

^^ thanks spring_phan Smile. Waiting for your next Topic

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Re: Perfume-scent from heaven - Mara Creble

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